## Contact

**Office:** C201E Engineering Building**Phone:** 970-491-7956**Email:** azimi@engr.colostate.edu

## Research Interests

- Digital Image and Signal Processing
- Machine Learning
- Distributed Sensor Networks
- Remote Sensing

## Citations

# Dr. Mahmood Azimi-Sadjadi

Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering

## Bio

Dr. Azimi-Sadjadi joined the Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering at Colorado State University in July 1986 where he is a full Professor. His teaching/research areas involve statistical signal/image processing, machine learning and neural networks, distributed sensor networks, and sonar/acoustic systems. His research contributions in these areas have resulted in over 250 journal and refereed conference publications.Dr. Azimi-Sadjadi is a co-author of the book Digital Filtering in One and Two Dimensions, Plenum Press, 1989. He has chaired several technical sessions at international and national conferences. He served as an associate editor of the IEEE Transaction on Signal Processing and IEEE Transaction on Neural Networks. Currently, Dr. Azimi-Sadjadi is the director of the Digital Signal/Image Processing Laboratory at CSU which conducts basic and applied research in many areas including sonar signal/image processing for underwater target detection and classification and machine learning for a variety of applications. Dr. Azimi-Sadjadi is the recipient of the 1999 Abell Faculty Teaching Award of Excellence, College of Engineering, Colorado State University. Dr. Azimi-Sadjadi is a fellow of CIRA and a member of the Colorado Chapter of the IEEE Neural Network Society. He is also a life member of the IEEE.

## Education

- B.S. 1977 University of Tehran in Electrical Engineering
- M.S. 1978 Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London, UK, in Electrical Engineering
- Ph.D. 1982 Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London, UK, in Electrical Engineering

## Publications

- [1.] J. J. Hall, C. Robbiano, and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Adaptive Classification using Incremental Linearized Kernel Embedding", IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 70, pp. 1764-1774, March 2022.
- [2.] C. Robbiano, E. K., Chong, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, L. L.Scharf, and A. Pezeshki, “Bayesian Learning of Occupancy Grids”, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation System, vol. 23, pp. 1073-1084, February 2022.
- [3.] C. Robbiano, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and E. K. P. Chong, "Information-Theoretic Interactive Sensing and Inference for Autonomous Systems," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 69, pp. 5627-5637, 2021, doi: 10.1109/TSP.2021.3067476.
- [4.] N. Klausner and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, “Manifold-Based Classification of Unexploded Ordnance in Low-Frequency Sonar”, IEEE Journal on Oceanic Engr., vol.45, pp. 1034-1044, July 2020.
- [5.] N. Klausner and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, “Performance Prediction and Estimation for Underwater Target Detection Using Multi-Channel Sonar”, IEEE Journal on Oceanic Engr., vol. 45, pp.534-546, April 2020.
- [6.] M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, S.K. Srinivasan, and S. Ahmadinia, "Acoustic Localization of Vehicular Sources Using Distributed Sensors", Journal of Acoustic Society of America, vol. 146, pp. 4913-4925, December 2019.
- [7.] J. Hall, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, S. Kargl, and K., Williams, "Underwater UXO Classification using Matched Subspace Classifier with Adaptive Dictionaries", IEEE Journal on Oceanic Engr., vol 44, pp. 739-752, July 2019.
- [8.] S. Charleston-Villalobos, S. Reulecke, A. Voss, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, Ramón González, M. J. Gaitán, J. A. González-Hermosil, "Time-Frequency Analysis of Cardiovascular and Cardiorespiratory Interactions During Orthostatic Stress by Extended Partial Directed Coherence", Special Issue Information Dynamics in Brain and Physiological Networks, MDPI Journal of Entropy, vol. 21, 2019.
- [9.] V. Yaremenko, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, and J. Zacher, "Unattended Acoustic Sensor Systems for Source Detection, Classification, and Tracking", IEEE Trans. on Measurements and Instrumentation, vol. 68, pp.344-354, February 2019.
- [10.] M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, N. Klausner, and J. Kopaz "Detection of Underwater Targets Using A Subspace-Based Method with Learning", IEEE Journal on Oceanic Engr., vol. 42, pp. 869-879, October 2017.
- [11.] N. Klausner, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, and L. Scharf, "Saddlepoint Approximation for Correlation Testing Among Multiple Gaussian Random Vectors", IEEE Signal Processing Letter, vol. 23, pp. 703-707, March 2016.
- [12.] N. Klaunser and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Non-Gaussian Target Detection in Sonar Imagery using Multivariate Laplace Distribution", IEEE Journal on Oceanic Engr., vol. 40, pp. 452-464, April 2015.
- [13.] N. Wachowski and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Detection and Classification of Nonstationary Transient Signals Using Sparse Approximations and Bayesian Networks", IEEE Trans. On Audio Speech and Language Processing, vol. 22, pp. 150-1764, December 2014.
- [14.] N. Klausner and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Detection of Spatially Correlated Time Series from a Network of Sensor Arrays", IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, vol. 62, pp. 1396-1407, March 2014.
- [15.] Soheil Kolouri, Mahmood R. Azimi-Sadjadi and Astrid Ziemann "Acoustic Tomography of the Atmosphere Using Unscented Kalman Filter", IEEE Trans. On Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 52, pp. 2159-2171, April 2014.
- [16.] Soheil Kolouri, Mahmood R. Azimi-Sadjadi and Astrid Ziemann "A Statistical-Based Approach for Acoustic Tomography of the Atmosphere", Journal of Acoustic Society of America, 135(1), pp. 104-114, January 2014.
- [17.] N. Wachowski and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Characterization of Multiple Transient Acoustical Sources from Time-Transform Representations", IEEE Trans. On Audio Speech and Language Processing, vol. 21. pp.1966-1978, September 2013.
- [18.] N. Klaunser and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Detection in Multiple Disparate Systems using Multi-Channel Coherence Analysis", IEEE Trans on Aerospace and Electronic Systemsf, vol. 48, pp.3554-3566, October 2012.
- [19.] M. McCarron, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, and M. Mungiole, "An Operationally Adaptive System for Rapid Acoustic Transmission Loss Prediction", Neural Networks Journal. vol. 27, pp. 91-99, March 2012.
- [20.] N. Wachowski and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "A New Synthetic Aperture Sonar Processing Method using Coherence Analysis", IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engr. vol. 34, pp. 665-678, October 2011.
- [21.] J.D. Tucker and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Coherence-Based Underwater Target Detection from Multiple Disparate Sonar Platforms", IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engr. vol. 34, pp. 38-52, January 2011.
- [22.] M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, J. Salazar, and S. Srinivasan, "An Adaptable Image Retrieval System with Relevance Feedback Using Kernel Machines and Selective Sampling", IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, vol. 18, pp. 1645-1659, July 2009.
- [23.] J. Cartmill, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, and N. Wachowski, "Buried Underwater Object Classification Using a Collaborative Multi-Aspect Classifier", IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engr. vol. 34, pp. 32-44, January 2009.
- [24.] M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, N. Roseveare, and A. Pezeshki, "Wideband DOA Estimation Algorithms for Multiple Moving Sources using Unattended Acoustic Sensors" IEEE Trans. on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 44, pp. 1585-1598, October 2008.
- [25.] B. Thompson and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Iterative Multi-Channel Coherence Analysis with Applications", Neural Network, Vol. 21, pp.493-501, April 2008.
- [26.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, J. Salazar and S. Srinivasan, "An Adaptable Connectionist Text-Retrieval System With Relevance Feedback", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, vol.18, pp. 1597-1613, November 2007.
- [27.] A. Pezeshki, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi and L. Scharf, "Undersea Target Classification using Canonical Correlation Analysis", IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol. 32, pp. 948-955, October 2007.
- [28.] A. Falcone and M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Dual-Satellite Cloud Product Generation using Temporally Updated Canonical Coordinate Features", IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sending, Vol 45 pp. 1046-1060, April 2007.
- [29.] G. Wichern, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, and M. Mungiole "Environmentally Adaptive Acoustic Transmission Loss Prediction in Turbulent and Non-turbulent Atmosphere", Invited Paper, Special Issue, Neural Network Journal, Vol 20 pp. 484-497, May 2007.
- [30.] M. Robinson, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi and J. Salazar, "Multi-Aspect Classification Using Hidden Markov Models and Neural Networks", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol. 16, pp. 447-459, March 2005.
- [31.] A. Pezeshki, L.L. Scharf, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi and Y. Hua, "Two-Channel Constrained Least Squares Problems: Solutions Using Power Methods and Connections with Canonical Coordinates",IEEE Trans on Signal Processing, Vol. 53, No. 1, January 2005.
- [32.] J. Wang, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, D. Reinke and T. Vonder-Haar, "A Temporally Adaptive Classifier for Multi-Spectral Imagery", IEEE Trans. on Neural Network, Vol. 15, pp. 159-165, January 2004.
- [33.] D. Li, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi and M. Robinson, "Comparison of Different Classification Algorithms for Underwater Target Discrimination", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol. 15, pp. 189-194, January 2004.
- [34.] A. Pezeshki, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi and L.L. Scharf, "A Network for Recursive Extraction of Canonical Coordinates", Journal of Neural Networks, Vol. 16, pp. 801-808, 2003.
- [35.] K. Saitwal, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, D. Reinke, and T. Vonder-Haar, "A Temporally Adaptive System For Continuous Cloud Classification From GOES-8 Satellite Imagery ", IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 41-Part II, pp. 1098-1104, May 2003.
- [36.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, D. Yao, A. Jamshidi and G. J. Dobeck, "Underwater Target Classification in Changing Environments using an Adaptive Feature Mapping ", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol. 13, pp.1099-1111, September 2002.
- [37.] D. Yao, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, A. Jamshidi and G. J. Dobeck, "A Study of Effects of Sonar Bandwidth for Underwater Target Classification", IEEE Journal on Oceanic Engr, Vol. 27, pp. 619-627, July 2002.
- [38.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, W. Gao, T. Vonder-Haar and D. Reinke "A Temporal Updating for Probability Neural Network with Applications to Satellite Cloud Classification-Further Results", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol. 12, pp. 1196-1203, September 2001.
- [39.] B. Tian and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Comparison of Two Different PNN Training Approaches for Satellite Cloud Data Classification", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol. 12, pp. 164-167, January 2001.
- [40.] S.H. Seo and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "A 2-D Filtering Scheme for Stereo Image Compression using Sequential Orthogonal Subspace Updating", IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 11, pp.52-64, January 2001.
- [41.] M. A. Hasan, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, A. A. Hasan "Rational Invariant Subspace Approximations with Applications", IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, Vol. 48, pp. 3032-3041, November 2000.
- [42.] S.H. Seo, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, and B.Tian "A Least Squared-Based 2-D Filtering for Disparity Estimation", IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 9, pp.1967-1972, November 2000.
- [43.] H. Aoki , M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and Y. Kosugi, "Image Association Using a Complex-Valued Associative Memory Model", IEICE Trans. On Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications, and Computer Sciences, Vol. E83-A, pp.1824-1832, September 2000.
- [44.] B. Tian, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, D. Rienke, and T. Vonder-Haar, "A Temporal Updating for Probability Neural Network with Applications to Satellite Cloud Classification", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol. 11, pp. 903-920, July 2000.
- [45.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, D. Yao, Q Huang, and G.J. Dobeck "Underwater Target Classification using Wavelet Packets and Neural Networks", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol. 11, pp. 784-794, May 2000.
- [46.] X. Yu and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Neural Network Directed Bayes Decision Rule for Moving Target Classification", IEEE Trans. on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 36, pp. 176-188, January 2000.
- [47.] C.H. Yuan, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, J. Wilbur and G.J. Dobeck "Underwater Target Detection using Multi-Channel Subband Adaptive Filtering and High Order Correlation Schemes", IEEE Journal on Oceanic Engr, Vol. 25, pp. 192-205, January 2000.
- [48.] O. Yanez-Suarez and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Unsupervised Clustering in Hough Space for Identification of Partially Occluded Objects", IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intellgenc, Vol. 21, pp. 946-950, September 1999.
- [49.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi , R. Xiao, and X. Yu "Neural Network Decision Directed Edge-Adaptive Kalman Filter", IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol 8, pp. 589-592, April, 1999.
- [50.] O. Yanez-Suarez and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Identification and Measurement of Fibers in Scanning Electron Microscopy Images using a High-Order Correlation Process", IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 48, pp. 55-61, February 1999.
- [51.] B. Tian, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, M.Shaike, T. Vonder-Haar and D.Reinke "A Study of Cloud Classification with Neural Networks Cloud Classification using Textural and Spectral Features", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol. 10, pp. 138-151, January 1999. Also see the Errata to this paper in May 1999 issue.
- [52.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, S. Charleston and G.J. Dobeck, "A New Time Delay Estimation in Sub-bands for Resolving Multiple Specular Reflections", IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing , Vol. 46, pp.3398-3403, December 1998.
- [53.] M. Hasan and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Separation of Multiple Time Delays using New Spectral Estimation Schemes with Applications to Underwater Target Detection", IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, Vol.46, pp.1580-1590, June 1998.
- [54.] X. Miao, M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, B. Tian, A.C. Dubey and N. Witherspoon, "Detection of Mines and Mine-like Targets using Principal Components and Neural Network Methods", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol.9, pp.454-463. May 1998.
- [55.] R.J. Liou and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Multiple Target Detection using Modified High Order Correlation", IEEE Trans. on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol.AES-34, pp.553-568, April 1998.
- [56.] S. Charleston and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Interface Cancellation in Respiratory Sounds via a Multi-Resolution Joint Time Delay and Signal Estimation Scheme", IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engineering, pp.1006-1019, October 1997.
- [57.] M. Hasan and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "A Modified Block FTF Adaptive Algorithm with Applications to Underwater Target Detection", IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, Vol .SP-44, pp.2172-2185, September 1996.
- [58.] S. Charleston and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Kalman Filtering for Processing of Lung Sounds", IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engineering, April 1996.
- [59.] A. Ibrahim and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "A Fast Learning Algorithm for Gabor Transform with Applications to Data Reduction and Pattern Classification", IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. IP-5, pp.171-175, January 1996.
- [60.] L. Xu and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Parameter Estimation for Vector Image Models using Neural Networks", IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, Vol. SP-43, pp.3090-3094, December 1995.
- [61.] A.N. Balan and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Detection and Classification of Buried Dielectric Anomalies by means of the Bispectrum Method and Neural Networks", IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. IM-44, pp.998-1002, December 1995.
- [62.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, J. Wilbur and G. Dobeck, "Isolation of Resonance in Acoustic Backscatter from Elastic Targets using Adaptive Estimation Schemes", IEEE Journal of Ocean Engineering, pp.346-353, October 1995.
- [63.] M. Hasan and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Non-causal Image Modeling using Descriptor Approach with Applications to Image Restoration", IEEE Trans. on Circuit & Systems, Vol.CAS-42, pp.536-540, August 1995.
- [64.] S. Bannour and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Principal Component Extraction Using Recursive Least Square Learning Method", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol.6, pp.457-469, March 1995.
- [65.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and H. Pan, "Two-Dimensional Block Diagonal LMS Adaptive Filtering", IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, Vol. SP-42, pp.2420-2429, September 1994.
- [66.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and S.A. Stricker, "Detection and Classification of Buried Dielectric Anamolies using Neural Networks-Further Results", IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol.43, pp.34-39, February 1994.
- [67.] R.J. Liou and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Clutter Rejection and Dim Target Track Detection using High Order Correlation Neural Network", IEEE Trans. on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol.AES-29, pp.841-856, July 1993.
- [68.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, S. Ghaloum and R. Zoughi, "Terrain Classification in SAR Images using Principle Components Analysis and Neural Networks", IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, pp.511-514, June 1993.
- [69.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, S. Sheedvash and F. Trujillo, " Recursive Dynamic Node Creation in Multi-layer Neural Networks using Orthogonal Projection Method", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol.4, pp.242-256, March 1993.
- [70.] T.Lu and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Skew-Pipeline and Interleaved Pipeline Structures for 2-D Recursive Filtering", IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol.3, pp.87-91, February 1993.
- [71.] S. Citrin and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "A Full-Plane Block Kalman Filter for Image Estimation", IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol.IP-2, pp.488-495, October 1992.
- [72.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, D. Poole, S. Shedvash and K. Sherbundy, "Detection and Classification of Buried Dielectric Anomalies using a Separated Aperture Sensor and a Neural Network Discriminator", IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol.IM-41, pp.137-143, February 1992.
- [73.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and R. J. Liou, "Fast Learning Process of Multi-Layer Neural Networks Using RLS Technique", IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, Vol.SP-40, pp.446-450, February 1992.
- [74.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and K. Khorasani, "Model Reduction for a Class of 2-D Systems", IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Vol.CAS-39, pp.28-41, January 1992.
- [75.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and S. Bannour, "Two-Dimensional Recursive Parameter Identification for Adaptive Kalman Filtering", IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Vol.CAS-38, pp.1077-1081,September 1991.
- [76.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and S. Bannour, "Two-Dimensional Adaptive Block Kalman Filtering of SAR Imagery", IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. GARS-29, pp.742-753, September 1991.
- [77.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Estimation and Identification for Two-Dimensional Block Kalman Filtering", IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, Vol.SP-39, pp.1885-1889, August 1991.
- [78.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, T. Lu and E.M. Nebot, "Parallel and Sequential Block Kalman Filtering and Their Implementations Using Systolic Arrays", IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, Vol.SP-39, pp.137-147, January 1991.
- [79.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and K. Khorasani, "Reduced Order Strip Kalman Filtering using Singular Perturbation Method", IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Vol.CAS-37, pp.284-290, February 1990.
- [80.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "New Results in Strip Kalman Filtering", IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Vol.CAS-36, pp.893-897, June 1989.
- [81.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and A.R. Rostampour, "Parallel and Pipeline Architectures for 2-D Block Processing", IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Vol.CAS-36, pp.443-448, March 1989.
- [82.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and P.W. Wong, "Two-Dimensional Block Kalman Filtering For Image Restoration", IEEE Trans. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol.ASSP-35, pp.1736-1749, December 1987.
- [83.] K. Khorasani and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Feedback Control of Two-Time Scale Block Implemented Discrete-Time Systems", IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, Vol.AC-32, pp.69-73, January 1987.
- [84.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "An Efficient Algorithm for Computing the Coefficients of the Characteristic Polynomial of 2-D State-Space Models", IEEE Trans.on Automatic Control, Vol. AC-32, pp.74-77, January 1987.
- [85.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and R.A. King, "Two-Dimensional Block Transforms and Their Properties", IEEE Trans. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol.ASSP-35, pp.112-114, January 1987.
- [86.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and R.A. King, "Two-Dimensional Block Processors-Structures and Implementations", IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Vol. CAS-33, pp.42-50, January 1986.
- [87.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and R.A. King, "An Error Analysis For 2-D Block Implemented Digital Filters", IEEE Trans. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol.ASSP-31, pp.1570-1573, December 1983.
- [88.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and R.A. King, "Optimization Technique For the Implementation of 2-D Recursive Digital Filters by Sectioning", IEE Proc. Part F: Communication, Radar and Signal Processing, Vol.129, No.5, pp.373-380, October 1982.
- [89.] M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi and R.A. King, "Truncation Error in 2-D Block-Mode Filtering", Electronics Letters, Vol.17, No.6, pp.217-218, March 1981.