RAMCHAND OAD                            Professor in Water Resources and Irrigated Agriculture
Department of Civil Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, Colorado, 80526
e-mail: oad@engr.colostate.edu work: (970) 491-7682 fax: (970) 491-7369

Key Qualifications

Dr. Oad's professional career has focused on promoting economic welfare through sustainable water resources development and management for irrigated agriculture. It has included teaching and research, policy planning, project design and implementation and institutional strengthening.

In addition to teaching and research at CSU, Dr. Oad has worked with several state and federal government agencies on issues related to water resources management in the Western United States. He led a comprehensive research effort on water rights to irrigation return flows, for the Colorado State Engineer's office (1989-96). He conducted a major field study for the Central Colorado Water Conservancy District to investigate water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture with a view to conserve water for better river habitat and ecosystem (1990-94). Currently, Dr. Oad is working for the New Mexico State Engineer's Office on issues related to irrigation water use and its effect on fish and wildlife in the Rio Grande River.

Dr. Oad has extensive work experience in many developing countries, where he has worked as consultant for international agencies such as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and the USAID. He recently worked as a consultant for the Nile River Basin Initiative program of the World Bank, to develop projects for promoting more efficient use of water and ecosystem conservation (1999-2000). Dr. Oad lived and worked in Indonesia as the leader of a nine-member team that assisted the National Development Planning Board to formulate policies for sustainable development and management of irrigation water resources (1997-98). His other most recent assignments were in: (i). Central Asia (Tajikstan) with the World Bank's programs to support privatization of agricultural land and water resources and rehabilitate irrigation systems (1998-2000), and (ii) Egypt to support USAID's Water Resources Policy Reform program (1999-2001).


Ph.D. (1982) Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Agricultural Engineering.
M.S (1973) Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok. Water Science and Engineering.
B.E (1970) N.E.D. Engineering College, Karachi, Pakistan. Civil Engineering.

English (excellent), Urdu/Hindi (excellent), Indonesian (good), Arabic (fair).



1. Teaching

Water Control and Measurement
A graduate level course developed and taught since 1994. The primary purpose of the course is to learn about the fundamental aspects of water control in open-channel gravity flow irrigation systems. The basic premise of the course is that the productivity of irrigated agriculture sector depends to a large extent on the degree of control farmers have over their water supplies. As such, it is necessary for irrigation engineers, who often are the system managers, to deliver the right amount of water at the right time and at the right place.

Soil and Water Engineering
The primary objective of the course is to study soil- water-plant relationships for the purpose of supporting useful plant life. Also, for a sustainable agriculture, the course is concerned with the soil and water quality issues as affected by agricultural management practices.

Flow Regulation and Measurement in Irrigation Systems
This course was developed for presentation through the Colorado Institute for Irrigation Management (CIIM). It was a four-week intensive course (8 am- 5 pm) specially developed for practicing engineers from developing countries. The course was taught on campus at CSU for four years (1987-1990), Pakistan (1986), India (1990), Egypt (1991) and Nepal (1989).

Social and Technical Aspects of Water Resources and Irrigation Management (Summer: 1982-1989)
An intensive five-week interdisciplinary course taught in cooperation with the Sociology Department at CSU. The course analyzed the fundamental relationships in technology and the necessary social organization for an efficient and productive use of water. The course participants were irrigation professionals from all around the world sponsored by organizations such as: The World Bank, The Asian Development Bank, USAID, The Ford Foundation and Japan International Cooperation Agency.

2. Selected Research Projects

The field research is sponsored by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, to investigate options for the agriculture sector to be a more efficient user of water supplies from the Rio Grande. Reduced water diversions from the river, it is envisaged, will improve river ecology for fish and wildlife some of which have been listed as endangered species.

The field research is sponsored by the Agriculture Experiment Station, for the purpose of investigating the salinity problem associated with irrigated agriculture in Eastern Colorado (Lower Arkansas River). I work as a member of a team that includes two Ph.D. and one M.S. students.

Primary purpose of this field research is to evaluate the impact of cropping practices on water quality, especially the nitrate content of groundwater in irrigated fields. The research will be conducted on selected farms in Eastern Colorado.

The Colorado State Engineer's Office, the City of Colorado Springs and the Colorado Water Resources Research Institute sponsored the research. Its purpose was to evaluate the magnitude of return flows from irrigation of urban landscapes. Several cities with rapidly expanding populations (including Denver and Colorado Springs) claimed credits for the return flows. Four graduate students worked on the project as a part of their M.S degree programs.

The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Environmental Protection Agency sponsored the project. Its purpose was to investigate and document the working procedures of private enterprises that deliver irrigation water to the farmers, including irrigation ditch companies and irrigation districts. The information could be used to more effectively engage these farmers' organizations in better management of water and other environmental resources.

The field research was sponsored by the Central Colorado Water Conservancy District and was conducted in the Weld County. The purpose was to monitor water use, fertilization and other cropping practices of selected farmers and access their environmental impact on water quality. One Ph.D. and one M.S. students worked on the project.

Sponsored research by the Colorado Water Resources Research Institute, 1990-91.

The purpose of the research was to develop computer aided decision support systems that can be used to make crop choices, application of inputs, and manage irrigations .

3. Research Publications in Refereed Journals (Last ten years)

Oad, Ramchand (2001). Policy Reforms for Sustainable Irrigation Management - A case study of Indonesia. Irrigation and Drainage Journal Vol. 50 Issue 4: 279-294. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., U.K. Dec. 2001.

Oad, Ramchand and R. Azim (2001). Policy Reforms for Irrigated Rice Cultivation in Egypt. Accepted for publication in the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Guardo,M. and Ramchand Oad (2000). Comparison of Zero-Inertia and Volume Balance Advance -Infiltration Models in Irrigation. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 126, No.6, June 2000. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, N.Y.

Oad, Ramchand, K. Lusk and T. Podmore (1997). Consumptive Use and Return Flow in Urban Landscape Water Use. ASCE Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, Vol. 123, No. 1. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, N.Y.

Oad Ramchand and Mike DiSpigno (1997). Water Rights to Return Flow in Urban Landscapes. ASCE, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, Vol. 123, No.4, pp. 293-299. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, N.Y.

Oad Ramchand and R.K. Sampath (1995). Performance Measure for Improving Irrigation Measurement. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 9: 357-370. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Nevo, Amnon and Oad, Ramchand (1994). An Integrated Expert System for Optimal Crop Water Planning. Agricultural Systems 45: 73-92. Elsevier Science Limited, London, England.

Oad, Ramchand and Philip King, 1991. Water resources development and management in mountainous areas. The Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Systems, Vol. 5: 213-228. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

D.N. Sharma and Ramchand Oad, 1991. Performance measure for irrigation water delivery systems. International Congress on Irrigation and Drainage Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 1, New Delhi.

Mizyed, Nauman, Jim Loftis and Ramchand Oad, 1991. The importance of demand estimation in large-scale water delivery systems Management. The American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Irrigation and Drainage: Vol. 17, No. 3, May/June 1991, N.Y.

McCornick, Peter and Ramchand Oad, 1990. Modelling water control needs for diversified cropping. The Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Systems 4: 215-229, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Sharma, D.N. and Ramchand Oad, 1990. The variable time model for equitable water distribution in irrigation systems of North India. Journal of Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 17, No. 4, March 1990. Elsevier Publications, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


1. Long-term Resident Work

Indonesia: Assessment of Options for Sustainable Irrigation Development and Management. National Development Planning Board/ Ministry of Water Resources and the Asian Development Bank.
May 1997-June 1998.
Team Leader of a nine-member consultant team that evaluated water resources and irrigation sector policy, strategy and programs. The team suggested future options for sustainable development and management of irrigated agriculture in Indonesia.

Egypt: Irrigation Improvement Project (USAID/Govt. of Egypt)
Formulated and implemented a water management program for the Irrigation Advisory Service of the Ministry of Water Resources in Egypt. Also, formulated and implemented a performance monitoring program to evaluate impact of the Irrigation Improvement Project on environment, agricultural productivity and rural welfare in Egypt.

Worldwide: Water Management Synthesis Project, USAID Washington/Colorado State University.
Worked with the USAID funded project to provide technical assistance to governments, farmers, and policy makers in developing countries (Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, India, Kenya, and Indonesia) in the following subject areas:

Indonesia: Determinants of Irrigation Water Management in Indonesia, Central Java, (USAID/Govt. of Indonesia), 1979-1981.
Primary objective of the project was to provide information about the irrigation management practices of the farmers. The Departments of Agriculture and Water Resources used this information to develop and strengthen water users' associations in Indonesia.

2. Short-term Assignments -- Central Asia

Tajikstan: Farm Privatization Support Project (Tajikistan Ministry of Agriculture/ the World Bank)
Oct.1998; Jan. 1999; Aug. 2000.

Participated in the project design as a consultant for the World Bank. The main objectives of the Project are to: (i) develop institutional capacity at the state and local government levels necessary to ensure fair and equitable transfer of land and water resources to private individuals, (ii) rehabilitate critical water works used for irrigated agriculture, and (iii) to develop water users' associations for proper management of irrigation water resources.

3. Short-term Assignments -- South Asia

Nepal: Impact Study of the Bank's Projects/Programs on Water Resources and Irrigation Sector in Nepal (Asian Development Bank/Dept. of Water Resources and Irrigation)
June-July, 1994.

Water Resources and Irrigation sector review to evaluate the impact of projects financed by the Asian Development Bank for improving water resources and agricultural productivity.

India: Hill Areas Land and Water Resources Development Project, Himachal Pradesh (USAID/Govt. of India), June-July 1990, March-July 1988, Nov.-Dec. 1987.

Worked as an advisor to the Ministry of Water Resources over a period of four years, to improve watershed management and environmental quality, and to increase agricultural productivity by developing small irrigation schemes that can be locally managed.

Pakistan: On-Farm Water Management Project (USAID/Govt. of Pakistan)
May-June 1982, Dec. 1986-Feb.1987, June- July 1988, Nov.-Dec. 1990.

Worked with the On-Farm Water Management Directorates in Punjab and Sind provinces for the development of effective water users groups.

4. Short-term Assignments -- Southeast Asia

Indonesia: Assessment of Options for Sustainable Water Resources and Irrigation Development in Indonesia (Asian Development Bank/ Government of Indonesia).
March, Nov.-Dec. 1996.

Provided leadership in writing the project proposal for the technical assistance study sponsored by the Asian Development Bank. Primary objective of the project was to evaluate the performance of Indonesia's irrigation investment and management program in order to assist the Government to define a medium-term and a long-term irrigation water policy framework.

Indonesia: Design of the Small-Scale Irrigation Management Project (Ministry of Public Works /USAID)
June-December, 1984.

Participated in the design of a project to encourage better water management in small to medium scale irrigation schemes. Worked in South Sulawesi, Nusa Tengara Barat and Nusa Tengara Timur as a member of an interdisciplinary team, which consisted of agronomists, engineers, economists and rural sociologists.

Indonesia: Cost Recovery in Irrigation Development Projects (World Bank/ Ministry of Public Works), May-Dec. 1986.

Analyzed the complex issue of cost recovery in irrigation development projects working as a water resource engineer within an interdisciplinary team of economists, sociologist and agronomists.

Indonesia: High-Performance Sederhana Irrigation (Ministry of Agriculture and USAID)
May-June 1983, June 1985.

Evaluated strategies for involving farmer communities in the development and management of water resources for agriculture. Analysis and evaluation of the two-year data provided useful information on local participation in the development and management of irrigation development programs.

5. Short-term Assignments -- Africa and Middle East

Nile River Countries: Nile Basin Initiative (The World Bank/ Ten Regional Countries)
Oct.1999-Sept. 2000.

Worked as a consultant for the World Bank to formulate programs that can be jointly implemented by the ten riparian countries in the Nile Basin for more productive use of water for agriculture. The ten Nile River riparian countries (Burundi, Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda) have established the Nile Basin Initiative to "develop the water resources and watersheds of the Nile Basin in a sustainable and equitable way to ensure prosperity, security and peace for all its peoples."

Egypt: Agricultural Water Resources Policy Reform Project (USAID/Govt. of Egypt)
March, May-June, November, 1999; July 2001.

Formulated policies concerning water use and management for rice in the delta region and for sugarcane in the southern region of Egypt. Both rice and sugarcane are heavy users of irrigation water, and the government wants to reduce the amount of water used by these crops.

Egypt: Irrigation Improvement Project (USAID/Govt. of Egypt)
Oct. - Dec. 1994.
Monitoring and evaluation of participatory water resources management by farmers in command areas improved by the Irrigation Improvement Project.

Kenya: Small-Scale Irrigation Development Project (USAID/Kenya)
Nov.- Dec. 1985.
Member of an interdisciplinary team whose assignment was to assess the performance of irrigated agricultural sector (particularly small-scale), and recommend strategies to develop small-scale irrigated agriculture.