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When selecting (clicking on) a vertex, the cursor tip must be located on (within) a visible (i.e., front-facing and non occluded) facet. The vertex within the facet closest to the cursor tip is selected.
near clipping plane (N)
Distance from the viewer to the front clipping plane used for clipping off the view of geometry close to the viewer.
far clipping plane (F)
Distance from the viewer to the rear clipping plane used for clipping off the view of geometry far from the viewer.
perspective angle (P)
Controls the degree of 3D perspective of the view. A larger angle results in a more pronounced effect.
rotate increment (R)
Controls the speed of view rotation driven by the Left Mouse button view controls. The smaller the increment, the slower the speed. The value shown is the rotation increment in degrees between each rotation step. The maximum value allowed is 90 degrees.
Saves the current model as a ".scl" file using the current model path and name. The original and sculpted geometry is saved along with all user parameters and settings.
Save As ...
Saves the current model as a ".scl" file using a new file name.
Save Project ...
Saves in an ASCII project file (*.prj) a list of paths of all currently open models.
Save Area to File ... [Alt+0]
Saves the selected area to a ".scl" file.
Sub menu for importing (loading) different file formats other than VP-Sculpt (".scl") files.
Sub menu for exporting (saving to) different file formats other than VP-Sculpt (".scl") files.
Imports a model stored in the ASCII Wavefront OBJ file format. This is the most efficient of the import formats resulting in the fastest import time. The only tokens supported are "v," "f" and "fo." All other tokens are ignored. All vertices (v tag lines) must be listed first before the facet tag lines. If the message "Illegal format" appears, it is because of file errors (e.g., reference to nonexistent vertices) or unsupported formatting (e.g., "v" and "f" tags are not in 1st column).
OBJ and Regions ...
Imports a compatible set of Wavefront OBJ and Regions files previously exported from VP-Sculpt. This provides an ASCII file interface to the geometry and region data structures within VP-Sculpt. It can also be used to recover previously exported data that was not saved as a VP-Sculpt file.
DXF (POLYLINE) ...
Imports a model stored in the ASCII AutoCAD DXF file format as a single POLYLINE structure. All other tags and structures are ignored.
DXF (3DFACE) ...
Imports a model stored in the ASCII AutoCAD DXF file format containing 3DFACE facet structures. All other tags and structures are ignored.
ASCII SCL ...
Imports a model stored in the ASCII VP-Sculpt (ACL) file format. This format is useful for transferring files between the PC and older SGI versions of VP-Sculpt.
Binary STL ...
Imports a model stored in the binary Stereo Lithography (STL) file format.
ASCII STL ...
Imports a model stored in the ASCII Stereo Lithography (STL) file format.
See "Prepare a digitized
surface for rapid prototyping (RP)" for a recommended procedure to follow
before exporting an STL file.
Binary STL ...
Exports the current model and saves it as a binary Stereo Lithography (STL) file. The ".stl" extension is added to the file name automatically. Unlike with importing STL files, exporting takes relatively little time.
ASCII STL ...
Exports the current model and saves it as an ASCII Stereo Lithography (STL) file. The ".stl" extension is added to the file name automatically.
DXF (POLYLINE) ...
Exports the current model and saves it as an ASCII AutoCAD DXF file using the POLYLINE structure. The ".dxf" extension is added to the file name automatically.
IGES (106) ...
Exports the current model and saves it as an ASCII IGES file using the Copious Data Entity (106 entity type). The ".igs" extension is added to the file name automatically.
Exports the current model and saves it as an ASCII Inventor file. The ".iv" extension is added to the file name automatically. The SGI utility ivview can be used to view these files.
Exports the current model and saves it as a binary GVA file. This is a tri-strip format developed for use with an Inventor-based viewer. The ".gva" extension is added to the file name automatically.
ASCII SCL ...
Exports the current model and saves it as an ASCII VP-Sculpt (ACL) file. The ".acl" extension is added to the file name automatically. This export format is useful for transferring files between the PC and older SGI versions of VP-Sculpt.
Sub menu for editing and reshaping a selected area.
Sub menu for editing and reshaping the entire model.
Change Smoothing Weight ...
In smoothing operations, a vertex is replaced by an average of its own coordinates and the coordinates of all of its neighbor vertices. This menu item lets you change the weighting factor applied to the neighbors. The default value is 1 implying that the neighbors are weighted the same as the vertex. Values less than 1 weigh the neighbors less, and values greater than 1 weigh the neighbors more.
Set Edit Control Parameters ...
Allows you to change the values for all of the Edit Control Parameters by keying in numbers.
Update Model Extents and Parameters
Determines the geometric extents of the sculpted model and adjusts the near and far clipping planes to allow viewing of the entire model. This is useful if the view is being clipped and you want to quickly view the all extents of the models. Also, all other parameters related to the extents (e.g., the increments used for elliptical area sizing and stretching) are reset to their default values.
Add Facet Between Boundary Facets ...
Allows you to create new facets which bridge between sets of two existing boundary facets.
Add Facet Between Boundary Vertices ...
Allows you to create new facets which bridge across sets of three existing boundary vertices.
Delete Individual Vertices ...
Allows you to delete individually selected vertices. VP-Sculpt automatically deletes the vertex's neighbor facets.
Delete Individual Facets ...
Allows you to delete individually selected facets. VP-Sculpt automatically deletes the vertex's neighbor facets and any resulting stranded vertices.
Refine Individual Facets ...
Allows you to refine individually selected facets. Each facet is replaced with four planar facets created by joining the edge midpoints of the original facet. The surrounding mesh is also re-triangulated to join to the new edge midpoints.
Allows you to move individually selected vertices relative to the plane of the screen. A vertex is selected with the left mouse button while holding down the Spacebar. Both the Spacebar and left mouse button must remain down to move the vertex. If the Shift key is held down, mouse motion translates the vertex within the plane of the screen. If the Alt key is held down, vertical mouse motion translates the vertex perpendicular to the plane of the screen (i.e., in and out of the screen). The speed of the motion is affected by the amount of mouse motion and the zoom/pan increment (T).
Specify New Vertex Coordinates ...
Allows you to change the numerical values for the three coordinates (x, y, z) of selected vertices.
Snap Vertices to a Line ... [Ctrl+L]
Allows you to snap vertices to a line defined by picking two existing vertices on the current model. VP-Sculpt searches for all connected points that lie within a user-specified tolerance from the line joining the two vertices. All close (within tolerance) points (vertices) are then snapped to the line. The default snap tolerance is 1/3 of the average distance from the line endpoints to their neighbor vertices. Note that for large snap tolerances, many vertices and facets will be snapped to the line resulting in flattened facets. These can be removed with the "Replace Low Aspect Ratio Facets" function in the Repair menu.
With a Cutting Plane ... [Ctrl+T]
Allows you to delete all vertices and facets on one side of a plane that you place and orient in space. The procedure for positioning the plane is the same as that used for Define Mirror Plane in the Select-Mirror Image menu. Everything above the plane (on the blue vector side) is deleted. This feature is very useful for trimming around the periphery of a model.
Trim Portion of Model ... [Ctrl+Y]
Allows you to delete all vertices and facets (front and back facing) within a user-drawn screen rectangle.
Trim All But Portion of Model ...
Allows you to delete all vertices and facets (front and back facing) outside of a user-drawn screen rectangle.
Decimate ... [Ctrl+D]
Reduces the number of vertices and facets within the area by removing and patching over vertices that contribute little to the curvature of the surface. This feature is very useful for reducing the size and increasing the manipulation speed of a model while attempting to retain sufficient detail. VP-Sculpt removes the vertices that contribute least to the surface curvature and detail first and continues until the desired reduction level is achieved. The result is that vertices are removed first in flat areas first where removal has little if any effect on the shape or appearance of the model.
Four parameters control the decimation process: the largest feature height allowable for decimation, the largest boundary angle allowable for decimation, the number of decimation steps, and the target decimation percentage. Default values for the first three parameters are chosen by VP-Sculpt automatically, and they usually provide good results. If you wish to override the default values, VP-Sculpt will prompt you for the changes.
Before the feature height prompt (if requested), VP-Sculpt displays the total range of feature heights in the area (minimum, average and maximum). An interior vertex's feature height is the maximum distance between the vertex and its neighbor vertices projected in the vertex normal direction. For boundary vertices, the feature height is the distance between the vertex and the line segment joining its two boundary neighbors. By specifying the largest feature height allowable for decimation, you prevent VP-Sculpt from removing vertices with feature heights larger than this value. The Vertex and Feature Height selections in the Info menu are useful for checking feature heights before beginning the decimation process. The default largest feature height is [min + 2*(avg-min)] where "min" and "avg" are the minimum and average feature heights in the current model. This value gives VP-Sculpt adequate freedom in terms of allowable feature heights. For most applications, there is no need to change this parameter and the default value is acceptable, especially since VP-Sculpt decimates the low feature height areas first.
The second optional prompt is for the maximum boundary angle (in degrees) allowable for decimation. The default value is 30 degrees which allows much freedom. This angle is used when determining whether or not a vertex lying on an outer boundary or on a hole should be decimated. It provides an added check to the feature height test. If the turning angle (non straightness) at a boundary vertex is larger than the maximum value provided, the vertex will not be decimated. This control is useful in retaining shape detail in holes and on the surface boundary.
The third optional prompt is for the number of decimation steps. This defines the number of sub ranges into which the total feature height range is divided. In each iteration step of the algorithm, each vertex is checked to determine if its feature height is in or below the current sub range. VP-Sculpt removes all vertices within or below the sub range for each iteration. For most applications, there is no need to control this parameter and the default value (40) is acceptable.
The last prompt (the only mandatory prompt) is the most important because it defines the target decimation percentage. This percentage defines the goal percentage of facets to remove. For example, with a 25% target percentage, VP-Sculpt would try to remove 25% of the facets formed by vertices in the flattest areas. The target percentage will usually be exceeded slightly. The decimation process stops when the target percentage is reached or exceeded during the current iteration step. At any time during the process, you can stop the decimation with the Esc key. VP-Sculpt finishes the current iteration step and then stops.
Be aware that decimation, especially the first iteration, can take a long time. This is especially true for extremely large models.
Currently, decimation cannot be undone, so it is a good idea to save before performing it.
The decimation technique used in VP-Sculpt is based on the algorithm presented in:
"Decimation of Triangle Meshes,"
by W. Schroeder, J. Zarge and W. Lorensen,
Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH Proceedings '92), pp. 65-70, 1992.
Replaces each vertex in the area with the average of all of its neighbor vertices resulting in smoothing of the area. Each time smoothing is applied, the area gets smoother. The first step results in the greatest smoothing.
Smooth Perimeter [F11]
Replaces each vertex in the area perimeter with the average of all of its neighbor vertices resulting in a better blending between an area and its surroundings.
Randomly displaces each vertex in the area in its normal direction. The amplitude of the roughness is controlled by the sensitivity parameter (X).
Removes all of the vertices and facets within the area, creating a hole in the current model surface.
Delete All But
Removes all but the area vertices and facets in the current model. The area will be all that remains.
Snap to Plane ... [Ctrl+F]
Snaps all area vertices to a user-located plane. This feature is extremely useful for flattening an area. The procedure for placing the plane is the same as that used for Define Mirror Plane in the Select-Mirror Image menu.
Remove Sculpting ...
Returns the area's sculpted shape back to the original model geometry. This effectively removes all stretching, smoothing, and roughening. Permanent mesh editing modifications such deletes, decimates, and refines are not reversed in this process.
Same as Smooth in the EDIT-Area menu, except applied to the entire model.
Smooth Interior Only
Smoothes only the interior of the current model, excluding boundary vertices. This is useful if you want to retain the shape of a surface's boundary and holes.
Smooth Boundaries Only [Ctrl+F11]
Smoothes only the boundaries (free edges) of the current model, excluding interior vertices.
Same as Roughen in the EDIT-Area menu, except applied to the entire model.
Remove All Sculpting ...
Returns the sculpted model back to its original geometry. This effectively removes all stretching, smoothing, and roughening. Permanent mesh editing modifications such as deletes, decimates, and refines are not reversed in this process.
Rotation Center ...
Allows you to pick a vertex on the current model to serve as the new center of rotation of the view.
Reset Rotation Center
Resets the center of rotation of the view to the geometric center of the loaded models.
Perspective Projection [;]
Switches between perspective and orthographic projection viewing mode.
Sculpted Surface [Home]
Toggles between viewing the sculpted version of the models and the original surfaces.
Sub menu for controlling the display of areas, normals, boundaries, etc.
Set View Control Parameters ...
Allows you to change the values for all of the View Control Parameters by keying in numbers.
Toggles the toolbar (below the pull-down menus) on or off.
Toggles the status bar (message area at the bottom of the window) on or off. It is recommended that you never turn this off since it often displays vital instructions that must be followed.
Surface Thickness Box
Toggles on or off the display of the thickness dialog box that reports the sculpted thickness at the current vertex. The current thickness limits are also reported and can be changed in the dialog box (see also: "Set Stretch Limits" in the Stretch menu). The sculpted thickness is the minimum distance between the sculpted vertex position and the original unsculpted surface. A positive thickness implies the sculpted surface is above the original surface and a negative thickness implies it is below. The limits are used to sound a beep when the thickness at the current vertex exceeds one of the limits during a stretching operation.
Rotates and centers the view so the viewing direction is from the positive side of the x-axis to the origin with the y-axis up and the z-axis to the left.
Rotates and centers the view so the viewing direction is from the negative side of the x-axis to the origin with the y-axis up and the z-axis to the right.
Rotates and centers the view so the viewing direction is from the positive side of the y-axis to the origin with the z-axis down and the x-axis to the right.
Rotates and centers the view so the viewing direction is from the positive side of the y-axis to the origin with the z-axis up and the x-axis to the right.
Rotates and centers the view so the viewing direction is from the positive side of the z-axis to the origin with the y-axis up and the x-axis to the right.
Rotates and centers the view so the viewing direction is from the positive side of the z-axis to the origin with the y-axis up and the x-axis to the left.
Area Normals [O]
Toggles on or off the display of normal vectors at all vertices in the current area. This is useful to help visualize the 3D shape of the selected area. It is also useful because it clearly shows the extent of the area (esp., when the area's perimeter is undefined), and it helps you identify the "inside" and "outside" of the area for complex custom perimeters.
Normals During Fill Operations [Q]
Toggles on or off the display of normal vectors during fill operations such as "Determine Area" and "Reorient Normals." When this option is ON (the default), a fill operation is illustrated graphically with the display of normals as the operation progresses. When the option is OFF, no visual feedback is provided, but the operation will complete much faster.
Model Facet Normals
Hides or unhides the display of normal vectors at the center of every facet in the model.
Model Vertex Normals
Hides or unhides the display of normal vectors at every vertex in the model.
All Model Boundary Edges [Ctrl+A]
Toggles on or off the display of "free edges" in the current model. A "free edge" is and edge with only one adjacent facet. Free edges represent outer boundaries of a surface or inner boundaries of holes.
Model Holes [Ctrl+H]
Toggles on or off the display of "holes" in the current model. A "hole" is a closed loop of model edges for which the model surface is to the right of the loop when it is traversed counterclockwise (CCW) on the outward normal side of the surface.
Model Outer Boundaries [Ctrl+B]
Toggles on or off the display of "outer boundaries" in the current model. An "outer boundary" is a closed loop of model edges for which the model surface is to the left of the loop when it is traversed counterclockwise (CCW) on the outward normal side of the surface.
Model Unidentified Boundaries [Ctrl+U]
Toggles on or off the display of all "unidentified boundaries" in the model. An "unidentified boundary" is a set of connected free edges that could could not be closed to form a "hole" or "outer boundary." An "unidentified boundary" is the result of a mesh topology problem that can usually be resolved with "Delete Ends of Unidentified Boundaries" in the Repair menu .
Highlights every facet in the current model that has an edge shared by more than two facets.
Reports the number of "holes," "outer boundaries," and "unidentified boundaries" in the current model.
Reports the minimum, average, and maximum thickness (amount of stretch) in the current model.
Feature Height Range
Reports the minimum and maximum vertex feature heights in the current model. For interior vertices, the feature height is the maximum distance between the vertex and its neighboring vertices projected in the vertex normal direction. For boundary vertices, the feature height is the distance between the vertex and the line segment joining its two boundary neighbors.
Aspect Ratio Range
Reports the minimum, average, and maximum facet aspect ratios in the model where 0.0 corresponds to a flattened (zero area) facet and 1.0 corresponds to an equilateral triangle.
Custom Area [I]
Deselects the current area and selects the entire connected model area on the other side of the current custom area perimeter.
Convert Custom Shape to Spine
Converts a custom enclosed area into a closed spine area.
Convert Closed Spine to Custom Shape
Converts a closed spine area into a custom enclosed area.
Deselect Area [Esc]
Deselects the current selected area and puts VP-Sculpt in the Elliptical Area select mode.
Mirror Image >
Sub menu for defining and activating a mirror image plane for the current model.
Change Current Model ... [Ctrl+C]
Allows you to select a model from a list to be the "current model." All operations apply to the current model unless indicated otherwise.
Make Next Model Current [Ctrl+Tab]
Selects the next model (in the order loaded) to be the "current model."
Sub menu for stretching an area in a fixed number of sensitivity increments.
Reset Stretch Direction [Ctrl+E]
Resets the stretch direction to the normal vector of the currently selected vertex.
Change Stretch Direction With Vector ...
Allows you to change the current stretch direction by entering new vector components. The vector is automatically normalized. Entering vector components is not very intuitive or user friendly; however, you should not need to use this feature often, if at all. For a custom user area, you can control the stretch direction by clicking on different vertices after defining the shape. The stretch direction is defined by the normal vector at the selected vertex. Once you have started stretching the area, selecting different vertices only changes the thickness value display, not the stretch direction. However, Reset Stretch Direction (above) lets you override this to redefine the direction.
Sub menu for choosing a shape to control stretching of selected areas.
Use Local Normals for Stretching
Switches between the current stretch direction and the local normal stretching modes. When local normal stretching is on, every area vertex will stretch in the direction of its own normal rather than in the current area stretch direction. This is useful in creating a growing or bulging type stretch.
Set Stretch Limits ...
Lets you change the minimum and maximum stretch limits. When the surface thickness at the currently selected vertex exceeds these limits during a stretching operation, VP-Sculpt sounds a beep. This is useful if you want to limit the amount of sculpting you perform on a model.
Use Current Thickness Range as Limits
Sets the minimum and maximum stretch limits to the current minimum and maximum thicknesses in the current model. This is useful for enhancing the visual impact of the Thickness Color Contour render mode (see Render menu).
Medium (3) Out [F2]
Stretches the current area out three sensitivity increments.
Large (5) Out [F3]
Stretches the current area out five sensitivity increments.
Small (1) In [F5]
Stretches the current area in one sensitivity increment.
Medium (3) In [F6]
Stretches the current area in three sensitivity increments.
Large (5) In [F7]
Stretches the current area in five sensitivity increments.
Point Cloud 
Shows each model vertex as a white dot. The resulting display is a cloud of points.
Full Wireframe 
Shows every model edge as a white line. The resulting display is a wireframe (stick figure) image.
Visible Wireframe 
Full Wireframe with edges of non visible (backfacing or occluded) facets not shown.
Shaded Visible Wireframe 
Visible Wireframe with smooth (Gouraud) shaded coloring.
Smooth Shading 
Smooth (Gouraud) shaded image. The color and intensity at points on the surface are interpolated across facets between the vertices.
Flat Shading 
Shades each facet with a constant color. The intensity of the color depends on the facet's angle to the light source. Facets facing the light source are brightest.
Wireframe/Shaded Combo 
Smooth shaded image with a superimposed white wireframe.
Hides or unhides all facets that face away from the viewer. This can improve the speed of model view manipulation.
Toggles on or off window double buffering. When double buffer mode is on, the window is redrawn in a back (non visible) buffer that is swapped to the front (visible) buffer instantaneously. This hides the drawing process from the user and can result in smooth animation when the view is manipulated. When this mode is off, all drawing occurs in the front (visible) buffer. This mode provides continual feedback to the user when a large model is redrawn but results in flicker for smaller models.
Allows you to change the current model's color.
Change Background Color ...
Allows you to change the color of the window's background. The default color is black.
Move Light Source ...
Allows you to interactively move the light source with the mouse. The light source position and direction are indicated with a white frustrum.
Set Light Source Position ...
Allows you to specify a new light source position. The x, y, and z coordinates are specified and fixed in window coordinates where the origin (0, 0, 0) is at the center of the window, positive x is to the right, positive y is up, and positive z is out of the screen.
Returns to view (unhides) the current selected area.
Unhide Portion of Model ...
Returns to view (unhides) the portion (front and back facing) of the current model within a user-drawn screen rectangle.
Unhide Entire Model [Ctrl+N]
Returns to view (unhides) the entire current model.
Unhide All Models
Returns to view (unhides) all portions of all models.
Change Model Display ...
Allows you to change the display status (visible or not) of any of the loaded models. Any hidden portions are retained for when the models all displayed again. Use the Shift key to select a range of models in the list. Use the Ctrl key to select a set of models by picking them individually.
Clear Individual ...
Removes markers at individually selected vertices..
Removes all vertex markers.
Hides or unhides the display of markers.
Change Name and Color ...
Allows you to change the name and color of an existing selected region.
Allows you to change the display status of existing regions. Use the Shift key to select a range of regions in the list. Use the Ctrl key to select a set of regions by picking them individually.
Sets the display status of all existing regions to ON so all of them appear.
Sets the display status of all existing regions to OFF so none display.
Allows you to delete an existing region definition. Only the name and color assignments are removed -- no geometry is deleted.
Deletes all existing region definitions. Only the name and color assignments are removed -- no geometry is deleted.
Exports all of the region information to an ASCII file with a ".rgn" extension. The format of the file is as follows:
Region: <region name>
Color: <red>, <green>, <blue>
# of Facets: <number of facets in region>
<list of region facet indices (one on each line)>
Region: <2nd region
Color: <red>, <green>, <blue>
# of Facets: <number of facets in 2nd region>
<list of region facet indices (one on each line)>
Extrude to Flat Bottom ...
Extrudes a surface bounded by a closed outer boundary into a volume with a flat bottom. The flat bottom is defined by placing a plane interactively. The procedure for positioning the plane is the same as that used for Define Mirror Plane in the Select-Mirror Image menu. You also specify the desired draft angle of the extruded sides. For the extrusion to work properly, the plane must be placed below the surface with the plane's normal vector pointing up towards the bottom of the surface.
It is recommended that you decimate the model's boundary (using Decimate Boundaries
Only in the Edit-Model menu) before extruding to
reduce the vertex/facet count of the resulting extruded solid. You cannot extrude
a surface with multiple "outer boundaries." If a surface appears to have no "outer
boundary" but it has a single "hole," that hole will be treated as the "outer
boundary" and the surface can be extruded.
Obviously, if the model surface already represents an enclosed volume (i.e., it has no edge boundaries), this feature does not apply.
Expand Model ...
Expands the current model (adds an extruded section) at a user-defined plane. The plane is defined by you interactively (the procedure is the same as that described for Define Mirror Plane in the Select-Mirror Image menu). You specify the thickness of the expansion. The result is that the model is spread apart at the plane by stretching the sectioned surface. No new vertices or facets are created; existing geometry is just reshaped.
Divide Model With a Split Plane ...
Allows you to divide the current model into two pieces separated by a user-placed plane that intersects the model. The procedure for positioning the plane is the same as that used for Define Mirror Plane in the Select-Mirror Image menu.
The top half of the model (above the plane on the normal vector side) is stored with "_top" appended to the original model name. The bottom half (below the plane) is stored with "_bottom" appended to the model name. New facets are created and existing facets are deleted where the plane intersects the model to result in a straight (flat) division. The original model is removed from memory and the two halves remain as two separate models.
This feature is useful for subdividing large models in preparation for Rapid Prototyping of exported STL files.
Trim Outside of Shape ...
Allows you to define a custom shape on the current model surface. Everything outside of this shape will be deleted. This is an alternative to defining an area with a custom user shape and deleting all but the area. In the case where you want to trim off only a small portion of the model surface perimeter, the area method is less efficient since it has to determine the entire contents of the area first.
Sub menu for repositioning, reorienting, scaling, and mirroring the current model. Note - these functions permanently change the model coordinates.
Merge Two Models ...
Allows you to combine two separate model files into a single model file. The models can first be oriented, positioned, and scaled with "Reorient/Translate/Scale Model ... [Tab]" in the UTILITIES-Transform menu. VP-Sculpt asks you to indicate from a list the model to be joined and then the model to which to be joined. VP-Sculpt combines the two models into one model with the same name as the second (joined to) model. You should use "Save-As" in the FILE menu if you wish to save the merged file under a different model name (if you don't want the original model to be overwritten).
See "Merge two models into a single connected model" for more information on how to use this feature.
Trim Model at Intersection ... [T]
Finds the intersection between two models and deletes the facets in the first model that intersects facets in the second model. This feature is useful as a preliminary step to a paste operation. The model to be pasted can first be trimmed where it sinks below the base model, then the unconnected islands below the surface can be deleted (with Delete Nonconnected Islands in the REPAIR menu), then the models can be pasted more smoothly. The models can first be oriented, positioned, and scaled with "Reorient/Translate/Scale Model ... [Tab]" in the UTILITIES-Transform menu.
Paste One Model Onto Another ... [Ctrl+V]
Allows you to paste one model onto another. The models can first be oriented, positioned, and scaled with "Reorient/Translate/Scale Model ... [Tab]" in the UTILITIES-Transform menu. The model to be pasted should have a distinct and clean outer boundary, and the model should be positioned so its entire boundary is as flush as possible with the surface of the model to which it is to be pasted. The "Trim Model at Intersection" function above is useful in helping you achieve this (see above). In general, it is best if the model to be pasted contains no holes. They can be filled with the filling tools in the REPAIR menu. However, if holes are present, they are projected to the base surface so the projected base surface areas can be retained.
VP-Sculpt asks you to indicate from a list the model to be pasted and then the model to be pasted on. VP-Sculpt then projects the boundary of the first model onto the surface of the second. The interior of the projection on the first model is deleted and the resulting hole is stitched together and smoothed with the outer boundary of the pasted model. VP-Sculpt then defines a closed Spine Area around the stitch region. This area is useful for further blending the surfaces with "Smooth [F9]" in the AREA menu. After the paste operation, the combined model has the same name as the original pasted-to model. You should use "Save-As" in the FILE menu if you wish to save the new model under a different model name (if you don't want the original model to be overwritten).
"Save Area to File" in the FILE menu is useful in combination with this feature. A portion of a model can be saved and later pasted onto the same or another model.
See "Paste a piece of one model onto another model" for more information on how to use this feature.
Model Units >
Sub menu for converting model coordinates from one unit system to another.
Define and Output Face Geometry
Prompts you to define 13 key anatomical landmarks, the plane of symmetry (sagittal plane), and the line of sight plane (transverse plane) for a human face. All of this information is stored in an ASCII DAT (*.dat) file.
The landmark points are the outer corner of the right eye (right endocanthion), the inner corner of the right eye (right exocanthion), the inner corner of the left eye (left endocanthion), the outer corner of the left eye (left exocanthion), the outer base point of the right nostril (right alare), the outer base point of the left nostril (left alare), the corner of the right side of the mouth (right cheilion), the corner of the left side of the mouth (left cheilion), the attachment point of the right ear lobe to the cheek (right otobasion inferius), the attachment point of the left ear lobe to the cheek (left otobasion inferius), the bottom center of the chin (menton/gnathion), the midline point between the eyebrows (glabella), and the midline base point below the nose (subnasale).
Translate Model With Vector ...
Allows you to translate the current model relative to the x-y-z coordinate system according to a specified vector.
Scale Model With Factor(s) ...
Allows you to scale the current model in any or all of the three coordinate directions (x, y and z axes). A scale factor greater than 1 will enlarge the model in the specified direction and a fractional scale factor will reduce the size.
Mirror Model About
the Mirror Plane
Replaces the current model with its mirror image with respect to the currently defined mirror plane (see the Mirror Image sub menu in the Select menu).
Translates all of the current model vertex coordinates so that the geometric center of the model is located at the coordinate system origin. This is useful because certain functions (e.g., rotation and scaling) are applied relative to the origin.
Return Model to Original Origin
Reverses the "Center Model at Origin" process and translates the current model back to its original location in space.
Align Two Models with
Three Points ... [
Allows you to align one model with another by picking three corresponding points on the two models. The first model is translated and rotated into alignment with the second based on the indicated points. The points should not be in a straight line and they should match as close as possible between the two models.
in to m
Convert model units from inches to meters. Every coordinate is multiplied by the conversion factor: 0.0254.
in to cm
Convert model units from inches to centimeters. Every coordinate is multiplied by the conversion factor: 2.54.
in to mm
Convert model units from inches to millimeters. Every coordinate is multiplied by the conversion factor: 25.4.
Convert model units according to a user-specified conversion factor.
Delete Unconnected Vertices [Ctrl+1]
Removes all model vertices that have no neighboring facets.
Delete Null Facets [Ctrl+2]
Removes all degenerate model facets that have no area (because the facet vertices are collinear).
Delete Appended Facets ... [Ctrl+3]
Removes all facets that are connected to the current model through only a single vertex. These facets can represent topological problems in the model's interior or "bow tie" facets at the boundary.
Delete Bow Tie Vertices ... [Ctrl+4]
Removes all vertices that have more than two adjacent boundary edges. These usually represent undesirable restrictions in the surface (e.g., "bow tie" facets along the boundary).
Delete Improper Model Facets ... [Ctrl+5]
Removes all model facets that have an edge shared by more than two facets.
Delete Improper Area Facets ...
Removes all area facets that have an edge shared by more than two facets.
Delete Ends of Unidentified Boundaries ... [Ctrl+6]
Removes the ends of all "holes" and "outer boundaries" that cannot be closed. This often removes mesh topology errors allowing VP-Sculpt to better identify surrounding "holes" and "outer boundaries."
Aspect Ratio Facets ... [Ctrl+7]
Removes all model facets that have an aspect ratio less than a user specified value where 0.0 corresponds to a flattened (zero area) facet and 1.0 corresponds to an equilateral triangle. To rid the model of only highly distorted facets, an aspect ratio cutoff of 0.1 (the default) is recommended. When a low aspect facets is removed, the surrounding geometry is adjusted to fill the resulting gaps (if there are any). This function can help get rid of useless facets and thin "sliver" triangles, and helps improve the results of shaded renderings.
Delete Nonconnected Islands ... [Ctrl+8]
Removes all facets that are not connected to the portion of the model indicated by the user (i.e., removes islands not connected to the selected island).
Delete Island ... [Ctrl+F8]
Removes all facets that are connected to the portion of the model indicated by the user (i.e., removes the selected island).
Fill All Holes ... [F4]
Finds and fills any holes in the model surface. No new vertices are created; rather, the algorithm bridges existing vertices on the hole boundaries with new facets. In the case of two or more holes sharing points on their boundaries, the algorithm may not fill all of the holes on the first pass. Usually, invoking the fill routine a second time will fill the remaining holes. If a multiple attempts fail to fill all holes, it is because the surface has topology problems. "Delete Improper Facets" (see below) may help resolve this situation. Otherwise, you may try deleting areas that you suspect contain improper topology and then try to fill the holes again.
VP-Sculpt distinguishes between "holes" and "outer boundaries." A closed boundary is considered to be a "hole" if the model surface is to the right of the boundary when it is traversed counterclockwise (CCW) on the outward normal side of the surface. Otherwise, the boundary is assumed to be an "outer boundary." "Outer boundaries" are not filled by this function.
See "Fill a large complex hole" for recommendations on how to produce better fills of non small holes.
Fill All Outer Boundaries ... [F8]
Fills all "outer boundaries" (see Fill All Holes above) in the current model.
Fill All But Largest Hole ... [Ctrl+F4]
Fills all "holes" (see Fill All Holes above) except the one with the largest number of vertices.
Fill All But Largest Outer Boundary ... [Ctrl+F8]
Fills all "outer boundaries" (see Fill All Holes above) except the one with the largest number of vertices.
Fill Area Holes ... [F12]
Same as Fill All Holes above, except applied only to holes within the selected area.
Process Holes and Outer Boundaries Individually ... [Ctrl+P]
Allows you to interactively view and/or fill each individual "hole" and "outer boundary" in the current model. For each "hole" or "outer boundary" in the model, VP-Sculpt reorients the model so the hole or boundary is in clear view and allows you to fill it or skip it. You can manipulate the view which is temporarily centered on each hole/boundary. You can also toggle in and out of full/partial render mode. In the default partial render mode, only facets adjacent to the hole/boundary are rendered.
Sub menu for reversing, reorienting, and recalculating model and area normals.
Reorient Area Normals ...
Reorients the area normals to match the normal orientation of a user-specified area facet. Only facets directly or indirectly connected to the picked facet are reoriented.
Reorient Model Normals ...
Reorients the current model normals to match the normal orientation of a user-specified facet. Only facets directly or indirectly connected to the picked facet are reoriented.
Recalculate Model Normals
Recalculates and normalizes the facet and normal vertices in the entire model.
Normalize Vertex Normals
Normalizes all of the current model vertex normals so their magnitudes are one.
Open Database ...
Open an existing SDB face database file.
Close the current face database and clear it from memory.
Save Database [Ctrl+J]
Save all changes to the current face database to its SDB file.
Save Database As ...
Save the current face database to an SDB file of a different name.
Create New Database ...
Create a new face database in memory.
Open Database Model(s)
Open one or more models selected from a list of current face database models.
Edit Database Model Info ... [Alt+3]
Edit the database information for a model selected from a list of current face database models. The face attributes, geometry file, part files, and thumbnail image files can be edited and stored in the database.
Delete Model(s) From Database ...
Delete one or more models selected from a list of current face database models.
Store or Edit Model Info in Database ... [J]
Store or edit information for the current model in the current face database. The face attributes, geometry file, part files, and thumbnail image files can be specified and stored in the database.
Define and Output Face Geometry ... [Alt+1]
Input face planes and key anatomical landmarks for the current model and export the data to a DAT (*.dat) file. This is the same as "Define and Output Face Geometry ... [\]" in the UTILITIES menu.
Store Thumbnail Image ... [Alt+2]
Capture and store a JPEG thumbnail image for the current model. A white rectangle will appear on the screen to indicate the recommended size of the image. You can zoom and pan the model and/or resize the window to have the model fill the rectangle. Then you need to use HyderSnap or some other screen capture program to save the image within the rectangle as a JPEG file.
Search Database ... [Alt+4]
Search the current face database for models with selected attributes. Any combination of gender, ethnicity, age group, and build attributes can be selected for a search. Search results can be viewed (via an HTML interface) and individual models can be opened.
View HTML File for Database Model ...
Create an HTML file to view information and thumbnail images for a selected model in the current face database.
View HTML File for the Entire Database ...
Create an HTML file to view information and thumbnail images for all models in the current face database.