Slider-Crank & Scotch-Yoke
- See two important and real linkages (the slider-crank and scotch-yoke
mechanism) in action.
- Compare experimental linkage measurements and data
collection to theoretical results.
- Learn how to use one of the software
programs (SLIDER) from the textbook's CD-ROM.
A single DOF experiment has been designed in which two similar "four-bar" mechanisms
are used to drive an output cart. The bottom mechanism is a scotch-yoke which
drives the output "link" in true sinusoidal motion; the top mechanism is a slider-crank
and only approximates sinusoidal motion.
SLIDER-CRANK | || |
of motion for the slider can be determined from geometrical relationships:
where, from the law of sines:
The equation can also be derived (MathCAD,
PDF) using the law of cosines:
equation can be approximated by:
that the equation contains two cosine terms. When the forcing frequency
Ωf equals the natural frequency Ωn
of the slider system, resonance will occur. Resonance will also occur, however,
at half the natural frequency due to the cos(2Ωf
t) term. This phenomenon will be explored further in future labs.
a given torque, T, supplied by the driving crank, the force in the x-direction
(producing work) on the slider is given by (see MathCAD,
The sin(Ωf t) term would
suggest that the greatest force would occur at Ωf
t = 90°. However, x is also a function of the driving crank angle
(Ωf t); when this angle is 90°, x
is at its minimum value. How the force changes throughout the range of motion
is one of the items we will be investigating in this lab.
The bottom cart is
driven by a scotch-yoke mechanism that produces true sinusoidal motion:
The lab contains two setups, each with a slider-crank and
a scotch-yoke; a computer records data from a data acquisition card gathering
position and angular velocity information. The TAs should already have the aparatus
|RUNNING THE HARDWARE||
- Ensure that the safety button is not depressed. If it is, see
the RESETTING THE SYSTEM directions.
- Flip the switch
- Slowly increase the speed by turning
the dial clockwise.
- The speed of motor is relatively unimportant, but
60 RPM (one cycle per second) is ideal because it will make analysis much easier.
Once the system has settled on a given speed, make note of the speed of the driving
link displayed on the LCD readout (in RPMs) on the computer cart. You will
need this value for calculations.
- Start recording data from LabVIEW (see
RUNNING LABVIEW directons).
- Close LabVIEW and flip
the switch on the controller to DISABLE.
- Open the LabVIEW program labeled "Cart Data-Based (Main)."
on the white arrow at the top-left of the toolbar to run the program. The
screen should then display the cart motion.
- Delete any text in the filename
box so that, once you're done recording, a dialog box will prompt for the save
- Data will only start being recorded after the "Stop to
Save Data" button is clicked.
- A thousand data points will be recorded
in one second and then automatically stop recording.
- Save to C:/My
Documents/MECH324 - temp/ or your U: drive (you may have to map a
network drive to get access to your U: drive)
- Save as <filename>.xls
(whatever you save it as, at a ".xls" at the end so it opens in Excel).
- Using a ruler or calipers, measure
each of the two link lengths (the other two links of the 4-bar mechanism are ground
and the slider which is a link of infinite length).
- Record these values
on the worksheet. You will need these values for calculations and to input parameters
into the SLIDER program.
- Go to C:\ME 324 Programs\Pacific
Scientific SC750 Controller\
- Ensure the E-Stop button has been released.
- Open the program "Analog.BAS"
Press Control+R to run the program
|RUNNING THE "SLIDER" PROGRAM||
- Start the SLIDER program. (Start | Programs | Design of Machinery |
- Enter each member of your group in the name (the name(s) you
enter will appear on the printouts).
- Click in the Input button on the
top menu bar.
- Choose Angle Steps as the Calculation Mode in the upper
- Min Theta = 0, Max Theta= 360, Delta Theta = 1.0.
Set Omega Zero to the speed you drove the experimental setup (remember to convert!).
Alpha2 = 0, ThetaZero = 0.
- Set links 2 and 3 to the values you measured
on the experimental setup and the other linkage values to zero.
on Calculate and then Animate.
- Adjust the Animation Speed (by moving
the slider to the left) to slow the playback speed, and click Run to animate again.
Click on Next when finished viewing.
- Choose Plot from the top menu bar.
Select Single Window.
- Select Mix and Match.
- Under Function
1 Variable, select Slider Pos and choose X for the Component.
- Click OK
just below the Component option for Function 1.
- Click on Next.
Click on Print Form or Copy (and paste into Word). If you wish to save the plot
data to a disk file instead, select Print instead of Plot in step 12 and use preset
output "Theta3, Trans Ang, Slider X, Slider Y" and use Disk File output.
Click on Back and plot Trans Ang instead.
- Again, print, copy, or save
the plot data.
- Close the SLIDER program.
- The data you saved from LabVIEW is a tab-delimited text file with four
columns containing position (in inches) information.
|TOP MIDDLE CART
LEFT CART |
MIDDLE CART |
LEFT CART |
- If the first row of the text file contains a header row with column
labels ("TOP MIDDLE TOP LEFT ..."),
delete that row before pasting in the Excel template (see sample
- Open "Cart Lab Plots.xls"
from either this link or from the computer's
- Make sure to enable macros (the macros do the calculations for
- Follow the directions on the "Directions" worksheet.
On the "Info Sheet" worksheet, remember to change the values highlighted
in yellow to match your recorded data.
- Play around with these values (i.e.
change link lengths) and see how they affect the plots.
- Using your recorded
values, print all four plots.