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Graduate Exam Abstract


Rongjin Yan

Ph.D. Final

July 12, 2011, 1:00pm-4:00pm

Engineering B103

A CMOS COMPATIBLE OPTICAL BIOSENSING SYSTEM BASED ON LOCAL EVANESCENT FIELD SHIFT MECHANISM


Abstract: The need for label-free integrated optical biosensors has dramatically increased in recent years. Integrated optical biosensors have many advantages, including low-cost, and portability. They can be applied to many fields, including clinical diagnostics, food safety, environmental monitoring, and biosecurity applications. One of the most important applications is point-of-care diagnosis, which means the disease could be tested at or near the site of patient care rather than in a laboratory. We are exploring the issues of design, modeling and measurement of a novel chip-scale local evanescent array coupled (LEAC) biosensor, which is an ideal platform for point-of-care diagnosis. Until now, three generations of LEAC samples have been designed, fabricated and tested. The 1st generation of LEAC sensor without a buried detector array was characterized using a commercial near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM). The sample was polished and was end-fire light coupled using single mode fiber. The field shift mechanism in this proof-to-concept configuration without buried detector arrays has been validated with inorganic adlayers[1], photoresist[2] and different concentrations of CRP proteins[3]. Mode beating phenomena was predicted by the beam propagation method (BPM) and was observed in the NSOM measurement. A 2nd generation LEAC sensor with a buried detector array was fabricated using 0.35?m CMOS process at the Avogo Technologies Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado. Characterizations with both single layer patternings, including photoresist as well as BSA [4] and immunoassay complexes [5] were done with cooperative efforts from various research groups. The BPM method was used to study the LEAC sensor, and the simulation results demonstrated the sensitivity of the LEAC sensor is 16%/nm, which was proved to match well with the experimental data [6]. Different antigen/antibodies, including mouse IgG and Hspx (a tuberculosis reactive antigen), have been used to test the immunoassay ability of LEAC sensor [7]. Many useful data have been collected by using the 2nd generation LEAC chip. However, during the characterization of the Avago chips, some design problems were revealed, including incompatibility with microfluidic integration, restricted detection region, strong sidewall scattering and uncoupled light interference from the single mode fiber. To address these problems, the 3rd generation LEAC sensor chip with buried detector arrays was designed to allow real-time monitoring and compatibility with microfluidic channel integration. 3rd generation samples have been fabricated in the CSU cleanroom and the mesa detector structure has been replaced with the thin insulator detector structure to solve the problems encountered during the characterizations. PDMS microfluidic channels and a multichannel measurement system consisting of a probe card, a multiplexing/amplification circuit and a LabVIEW program have been implemented into the LEAC system. In recent years, outbreaks of fast spreading viral diseases, such as bird flu and H1N1, have drawn a lot of concern of the point-of-care virus detection techniques. To test the virus detection ability of LEAC sensor, 40nm and 200nm polystyrene nanoparticles were immobilized onto the waveguide, and the increased scattered light was collected. Sensitivities of 1%/particle and 0.04%/particle were observed for 200nm and 40nm particles respectively. References: [1] G. Yuan, M. Stephens, D. Dandy, and K. Lear, “Direct imaging of transient interference in a single-mode waveguide using near-field scanning optical microscopy,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 17, Nov. 2005, pp. 2382-2384. [2] G. Yuan, M. Stephens, D.S. Dandy, and K.L. Lear, “Local Evanescent, Array Coupled (LEAC) Biosensor Response to Low Index Adlayers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CThL, 2006. [3] R. Yan, G. Yuan, M.D. Stephens, X. He, C.S. Henry, D.S. Dandy, and K.L. Lear, “Evanescent field response to immunoassay layer thickness on planar waveguides,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, 2008, pp. 101110-3. [4] R. Yan, S.P. Mestas, G. Yuan, R. Safaisini, D.S. Dandy, and K.L. Lear, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensor system with integrated detector array,” Lab on a Chip, vol. 9, 2009, pp. 2163-2168. [5] R. Yan, L. Kingry, R. Slayden, and K. Lear, “Demonstration of the immunoassay using local evanescent array coupled biosensor,” SPIE Photonic West 2010, 2010, 7559-14. [6] R. Yan, S.P. Mestas, G. Yuan, R. Safaisini, and K.L. Lear, “Response of Local Evanescent Array-Coupled Biosensors to Organic Nanofilms,” Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 15, 2009, pp. 1469-1477. [7] R. Yan, N.S. Lynn, L.C. Kingry, Z. Yi, R.A. Slayden, D.S. Dandy and K.L. Lear, “Waveguide biosensor with integrated detector array for tuberculosis testing,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 98, 2010, pp. 013702.

Adviser: Kevin L. Lear
Co-Adviser: N/A
Non-ECE Member: David S. Dandy, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
Member 3: V Chandrasekar, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Addional Members: Branislav Notaros, Electrical and Computer Engineering

Publications:
Journal papers [1] R. Yan, N.S. Lynn, L.C. Kingry, Z. Yi, R.A. Slayden, D.S. Dandy and K.L. Lear, "Waveguide biosensor with integrated detector array for tuberculosis testing," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 98, pp. 013702, 2010.
[2] R. Yan, S.P. Mestas, G. Yuan, R. Safaisini, D.S. Dandy, and K.L. Lear, "Label-free silicon photonic biosensor system with integrated detector array," Lab on a Chip, Featured on the front cover, vol. 9, pp. 2163-2168, 2009.
[3] R. Yan, S.P. Mestas, G. Yuan, R. Safaisini, and K.L. Lear, "Response of Local Evanescent Array-Coupled Biosensors to Organic Nanofilms," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 15, pp. 1469-1477, 2009.
[4] R. Yan, G. Yuan, M.D. Stephens, X. He, C.S. Henry, D.S. Dandy, and K.L. Lear, "Evanescent field response to immunoassay layer thickness on planar waveguides," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, pp. 101110-3, 2008.
Conference Papers:
[1] David S. Dandy, N. Scott Lynn, Luke C. Kingry, Rongjin Yan, and Kevin L. Lear, "Label Free Detection of Virus-Like Particles", MicroTAS, 2011
[2] Z. Yi, R. Yan, R. Safaisini, K. Lear, "Optimization of waveguide thickness for local evanescent field shift detection," SPIE Photonic West 2011, 7888-21, 2011
[3] K. Lear, R. Yan, D. Dandy, N. Lynn, R. Slayden, L. Kingry, "A novel evanescent field biosensor with an integrated photodetector array (invited)," SPIE Photonic West 2011, 7888-5, 2011
[4] R. Yan, S. Lynn, L. Kingry, R. Slayden, D. Dandy and K. Lear, "Demonstration of nanoparticle detection using a local evanescent array coupled biosensor," The 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, TuN2, 2010
[5] R. Yan, S. Lynn, L. Kingry, D. Dandy, R. Slayden, and K. Lear , "Waveguide biosensor with integrated photodetector array for tuberculosis serology ," The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2010, AMC5, 2010.
[6] R. Yan, S. Lynn, L. Kingry, R. Slayden, D. Dandy, and K. Lear, "An optical waveguide array biosensor for serology," Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, vol. 46, pp. 45-50, 2010.
[7] R. Yan, L. Kingry, R. Slayden, and K. Lear , "Demonstration of the immunoassay using local evanescent array coupled biosensor ," SPIE Photonic West 2010, pp. 7559-14, 2010.
[8] K. Lear and R. Yan, "A photonic biosensor system on a CMOS chip (Invited)," SPIE Photonic West 2010, pp. 7606-11, 2010.
[9] R. Yan, S. Mestas, Guangwei Yuan, and K. Lear, "High sensitivity local evanescent array coupled biosensors with nanometer BSA film," The Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2009, CTuCC5, 2009.
[10] R. Yan, G. Yuan , S. Mestas, R. Safaisini, and K. Lear, "Demonstration of local evanescent array coupled biosensors with organic nanofilms," The 21th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), pp. 240-241, 2008
[11] R. Yan, G. Yuan, R. Pownall, and K. Lear, "A novel low-loss y-type splitter with adjustable branching ratio," The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), pp. 543-544, 2007.
[12] R. Yan, G. Yuan, R. Pownall, and K.L. Lear, "Waveguide Characterization Using Shear Force Scanning Optical Microscopy," 2007 American Physical Society Annual Meeting, L38.00015, 2007.
[13] G. Yuan, R. Yan, M. Stephens, D. Dandy, and K. Lear, "Evanescent field response to small patterned features on a planar waveguide biosensor," 2007 American Physical Society Annual Meeting, J41.00006, 2007.
[14] K. Lear, G. Yuan, M. Stephens, X. He, R. Pownall, R. Yan, P. Nikkel, C. Henry, T. Chen, and D. Dandy, "A waveguide biosensors local evanescent field response to an immunoassay complex," 2007 Digest of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, pp. 97-98, 2007.


Program of Study:
EE672
EE536
EE525
EE504
EE680
EE799
EE799
EE799