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Journal Articles

Sample-Lord, K.M. and Shackelford, C.D. (2017). "Membrane behavior of unsaturated sodium bentonite." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, accepted 06/14/17.

Meier, A.J. and Shackelford, C.D. (2017). "Membrane behavior of compacted sand-bentonite mixture." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, NRC, accepted on 04/12/17, http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2016-0708

Hong, C.S. and Shackelford, C.D. (2017). "Long-term column testing of zeolite-amended backfills. II: Solute transport properties." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 143(9), 04017051 (published online on 05/29/17; https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001734.

Hong, C.S. and Shackelford, C.D. (2017). "Long-term column testing of zeolite-amended backfills. I: Testing methodology and chemical compatibility." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 143(9), 04017050 (published online on 05/29/17; https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.00011733.

Hong, C.S., Shackelford, C.D., and Malusis, M.A. (2017). "Numerical evaluation of vertical cutoff walls comprising zeolite-amended backfills for enhanced metals containment." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 143(7), 04017028 (published online on 03/15/17; http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001699.

Tong, S. and Shackelford, C.D. (2016). "Standardized hydraulic conductivity testing of compacted sand-bentonite mixtures." Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 39(6), 1-15 http://doi: 10.1520/GTJ20150204.

Pu, H., Shackelford, C.D., and Fox, J.P. (2016). "Assessment of consolidation-induced VOC transport for a GML/GCL liner system." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 142(11), 04016053 (published online 06/09/16; http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001538.

Shackelford, C.D., Meier, A.J., Sample-Lord, K.M. (2016). "Limiting membrane and diffusion behavior of a geosynthetic clay liner." Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 44(5), 707-718, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2016.05.009.

Sample-Lord, K.M. and Shackelford, C.D. (2016). "Solute diffusion in bentonite pastes." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 142(8), 04016033 (published online 04/05/16; https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001494.

Hong, C. S.-J., Shackelford, C.D., and Malusis, M.A. (2016). "Adsorptive behavior of zeolite-amended backfills for enhanced metals containment." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, accepted and in press; doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001481.

   Sample-Lord, K.M. and Shackelford, C.D. (2016). "Dialysis method to control exchangeable sodium and remove excess salts from bentonite." Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 39(2), 1-11; doi: 10.1520/GTJ20150065 (ISSN 0149-6155).

Pu, H., Fox, J.P., and Shackelford, C.D. (2016). "Assessment of consolidation-induced contaminant transport for compacted clay liner systems." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 04015091-1-04015091-4, published online 11/30/15; http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001426.

Bohnhoff, G.L., and Shackelford, C.D. (2016). "Salt diffusion through a bentonite-polymer composite." Clays and Clay Minerals, Clay Minerals Society, 63(3), 172-189in press.

Malusis, M.A., Kang, J.-B., and Shackelford, C.D. (2015). "Restricted salt diffusion in a geosynthetic clay liner." Environmental Geotechnics, ICE, Thomas Telford Ltd., London, 2(2), 68-77 (published online 01/01/14; http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/envgeo.13.00080.

Shackelford, C.D. (2014). "The ISSMGE Kerry Rowe Lecture: The role of diffusion in environmental geotechnics." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, NRC, 51(11), 1219-1242, http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2013-0277.

Bohnhoff, G.L., and Shackelford, C.D. (2014). "Consolidation behavior of polymerized bentonite amended backfills." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 140(5), 04013055-1-04013055-8 (published online 12/26/13; http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001079).

Bohnhoff, G.L., Shackelford, C.D., and Sample-Lord, K.M. (2014). "Calcium resistant membrane behavior of a polymerized bentonite." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 140(3), 04013029-1-04013029-12 (published online 11/27/13; http://dxi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001042).

Bohnhoff, G.L., and Shackelford, C.D. (2014). "Hydraulic conductivity of polymerized bentonite amended backfills." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 140(3), 04013028-1-04013028-12 (published online 11/27/13; http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001034).

Scalia, J., Benson, C.H., Bohnhoff, G.L., Edil, T.B., and Shackelford, C.D. (2014). "Long-term hydraulic conductivity of a bentonite-polymer composite permeated with aggressive inorganic solutions." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 140(3), 04013025-1-04013025-13 (published online 09/05/13; http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001040).

Bonhoff, G.L., Shackelford, C.D. (2013). "Improving membrane performance via bentonite polymer nanocomposites." Applied Clay Science, Elsevier, Amsterdam. 86, 83-98. dx.doi.org/10.106/j.clay.2013.09.017

Joo, J.-C., Shackelford, C.D., and Reardon, K.F. (2013). "Modeling sorption of neutral organic compound mixtures to simulated aquifer sorbents with pseudocompounds." Journal of Environmental Quality, SSSA, 42(3), 852-860, doi:10.2134/jeq2013.01.0025

Shackelford, C.D. and Moore, S.M. (2013). "Fickian diffusion of radionuclides for engineered containment barriers: Diffusion coefficients, porosities, and complicating issues." Engineering Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 152(1), 133-147, doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2012.10.014

Malusis, M.A., Shackelford, C.D., and Maneval, H.W. (2012). "Critical review of coupled flux formulations for clay membranes based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 138-139, 40-59, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2012.06.003

Sample, K.M. and Shackelford, C.D. (2012). "Apparatus for constant rate-of-strain consolidation of slurry mixed soils." Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 35(3), 409-419, paper ID: GTJ103787; doi: 10.1520/GTJ103787

Joo, J-C., Shackelford, C.D., and Reardon, K.F. (2012). "Lumping analysis for sorption of neutral organic compounds in mixtures to simulated aquifer sorbents." Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE,138(5), 552-561, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000498

Olson, M.R., Sale, T.C., Shackelford, C.D., Bozzini, C., and Skeean, J. (2012). "Chlorinated solvent source-zone remediation via ZVI-clay soil mixing: 1-year results." Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Hoboken, NJ, 32,

doi: 10.1111/j1745–6592.2012.01391.x

Hong, C. S.-J., Shackelford, C.D., and Malusis, M.A. (2012). "Consolidation and hydraulic conductivity of zeolite amended soil-bentonite backfills." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 138(1), 15-25, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000566

Kang, J.-B. and Shackelford, C.D. (2011). "Consolidation enhanced membrane behavior of a geosynthetic clay liner." Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 29(6), 544-556. doi:10.1016/j.geotexmem.2011-07.002

Joo, J-C., Shackelford, C.D., and Reardon, K.F. (2011). "Sorption of neutral organic compounds in mixtures to mineral surfaces and humic acid-mineral complexes." Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management, ASCE, 15(3), 188-198, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.1944-8376.0000070

Castelbaum, D., Olson, M.R., Sale, T.C., and Shackelford, C.D. (2011). "Laboratory apparatus and procedures for preparing test specimens of slurry mixed soils." Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 34(1), paper ID: GTJ102981; doi: 10.1520/GTJ102981

Kang, J.-B. and Shackelford, C.D. (2010). "Membrane behavior of compacted clay liners." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 136(10), 1368-1382, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000358

Hemsi, P.S., Shackelford, C.D., and Figueroa, L.A. (2010). "Calibration of reactive transport models for remediation of mine drainage in solid-substrate bio-columns." Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 136(9), 914-925, doi: 10.1061/_ASCE_EE.1943-7870.0000234

Malusis, M.A., Maneval, J.E., Barben, E.J., Shackelford, C.D., and Daniels, E.R. (2010). "Influence of adsorption on phenol transport through soil-bentonite vertical barriers amended with activated carbon." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 116(1-4), 58-72,

doi:10.1016/j.conhyd.2010.06.001

Shackelford, C.D., Sevick, G.W., and Eykholt, G.R. (2010). "Hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetic clay liners to tailings impoundment solutions." Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 28(2), 149-162, doi: 10.1016/j.geotexmem.2009.10.005

Joo, J.-C., Reardon, K.F., Shackelford, C.D., and Wilmetti, J.F.  (2010). "Electromagnetically vibrated solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of organic compounds." International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, Inderscience Publ., Olney, Bucks, UK, 12(2-4), 393-406. [pdf]

Kang, J.-B. and Shackelford, C.D. (2010). "Consolidation of a geosynthetic clay liner under isotropic states of stress." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 136(1), 253-259, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000181

Castelbaum, D. and Shackelford, C.D. (2009). "Hydraulic conductivity of bentonite slurry mixed sands." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 135(12), 1941-1956 doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000169

Kang, J.-B. and Shackelford, C.D. (2009). "Clay membrane testing using a flexible-wall cell under closed-system boundary conditions." Applied Clay Science, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 44(1-2), 43-58, doi:10.1016/j.clay.2009.01.006

Bohnhoff, G.L., Ogorzalek, A.S., Benson, C.H., Shackelford, C.D., and Apiwantragoon, P. (2009). "Field data and water-balance predictions for a monolithic cover in a semiarid climate." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 135(3), 334-348, doi:10.1061/(ASCE) 1090-0241(2009)135:3(333)

Hong, C. S.-J., Davis, M.M., and Shackelford, C.D. (2009). "Non-reactive solute diffusion in unconfined and confined specimens of a compacted clay soil." Waste Management, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 29(1), 404-417, doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2008.04.003

Evans, J.C., Shackelford, C.D., Yeo, S.-S., and Henning, J. (2008). "Membrane behavior of soil-bentonite slurry-trench cutoff walls." Soil and Sediment Contamination – An International Journal, Taylor & Francis, London, 17(4), 316-322, doi:10.1080/15320380802143880

 Ogorzalek, A.S., Bohnhoff, G.L., Shackelford, C.D., Benson, C.H., and Apiwantragoon, P. (2008).

"Comparison of field data and water-balance predictions for a capillary barrier cover." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 134(4), 470-486, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2008)134:4(470)

Joo, J.-C., Shackelford, C.D., and Reardon, K.F. (2008). "Sorption of nonpolar neutral organic compounds to humic acid-coated sand: Contributions of organic and mineral components." Chemosphere, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 70(7), 1290-1297, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.07.052

Joo, J.-C., Shackelford, C.D., and Reardon, K.F. (2008). "Association of humic acid with metal (hydr)oxide-coated sands at solid-water interfaces." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 317(2), 424-433, doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2007.09.061

Brown, L.C. and Shackelford, C.D. (2007). "Hydraulic conductivity of a geosynthetic clay liner to a simulated animal waste solution." Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, ASABE, 50(3), 831-841. [pdf]

Henning, J., Evans, J.C., and Shackelford, C.D. (2006). "Membrane behavior of two backfills from field-constructed soil-bentonite cutoff walls." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 132(10), 243-249, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2006)132:10(1243)

Hemsi, P.S. and Shackelford, C.D. (2006). "An evaluation of the influence of aquifer heterogeneity on permeable reactive barrier design." Water Resources Research, AGU, 42, W03402, doi:10.1029/2005WR004629

Shackelford, C.D. and Lee, J.-M. (2005). "Analyzing diffusion by analogy with consolidation." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131(11), 1345-1359, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:11(1345)

Lee, J.-M., Shackelford, C.D., Benson, C.H., Jo, H.-Y., and Edil, T. (2005). "Correlating index properties and hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetic clay liners." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131(11), 1319-1329, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:11(1319)

Yeo, S.-S., Shackelford, C.D., and Evans, J.C. (2005). "Consolidation and hydraulic conductivity of nine model soil-bentonite backfills." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131(10), 1189-1198, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:10(1189)

Lee, J.-M. and Shackelford, C.D. (2005). "Concentration dependency of the prehydration effect for a geosynthetic clay liner." Soils and Foundations, JGS, 45(4), 27-41.[pdf]

Hemsi, P.S., Shackelford, C.D., and Figueroa, L.A. (2005). "Modeling the influence of decomposing organic solids on sulfate reduction rates for iron precipitation." Environmental Science and Technology, ACS, 39(9), 3215-3225, doi:10.1021/es0486420

Yeo, S.-S., Shackelford, C.D., and Evans, J.C. (2005). "Membrane behavior of model soil-bentonite backfill mixtures." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131(4), 418-429, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:4(418)

Jo, H.-Y., Benson, C.H., Shackelford, C.D., Lee, J.-M. and Edil, T.B. (2005). "Long-term hydraulic conductivity of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) permeated with inorganic salt solutions." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131(4), 405-417, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:4(405)

Lee, J.-M. and Shackelford, C.D. (2005). "Solution retention capacity as an alternative to the swell index test for sodium bentonite." Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 28(1), 61-70. doi: 10.1520/GTJ12520

Lee, J.-M. and Shackelford, C.D. (2005). "Impact of bentonite quality on hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetic clay liners." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131(1), 64-77, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:1(64)

Lee, J.-M., Shackelford, C.D., Choi, J.-S., and Jung, M.-K. (2004). "Dependency of compatibility termination criteria on prehydration and bentonite quality for geosynthetic clay liners." Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, 20(7), 141-158. [pdf]

Malusis, M.A. and Shackelford, C.D. (2004). "Explicit and implicit coupling during solute transport through clay membrane barriers." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 72(1-4), 259-285, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2003.12.002

Malusis, M.A. and Shackelford, C.D. (2004). "Predicting solute flux through a clay membrane barrier." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 130(5), 477-487, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2004)130:5(477)

Malusis, M.A., Shackelford, C.D., and Olsen, H.W. (2003). "Flow and transport through clay membrane barriers." Engineering Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 70(2-3), 235-248. [pdf]

Shackelford, C.D. and Lee, J.-M. (2003). "The destructive role of diffusion on clay membrane behavior." Clays and Clay Minerals, CMS, 51(2), 187-197. [pdf]

Malusis, M.A. and Shackelford, C.D. (2002). "Theory for reactive solute transport through clay membrane barriers." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 59(3-4), 291-316. [pdf]

Malusis, M.A. and Shackelford, C.D. (2002). "Coupling effects during steady-state solute diffusion through a semipermeable clay membrane." Environmental Science and Technology, ACS, 36(6), 1312-1319, doi:10.1021/es011130q

Malusis, M.A. and Shackelford, C.D. (2002). "Chemico-osmotic efficiency of a geosynthetic clay liner." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 128(2), 97-106, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2002)128:2(97)

Munoz, J.F., Suazo, A., Rengifo, P., Shackelford, C.D., and Vauclin, M. (2001). "In-situ acid leaching of copper tailings: A case history." The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin, 94(1056), 81-87. [pdf]

Burger, C.A. and Shackelford, C.D. (2001). "Soil-water characteristic curves and dual porosity of sand-diatomaceous earth mixtures." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 127(9), 790-800.

Malusis, M.A., Shackelford, C.D., and Olsen, H.W. (2001).  "A laboratory apparatus to measure chemico-osmotic efficiency coefficients for clay soils." Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 24(3), 229-242. [pdf]

Burger, C.A. and Shackelford, C.D. (2001). "Evaluating dual porosity of pelletized diatomaceous earth using bimodal soil water characteristic curve functions." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, NRC, 38(1), 53-66. [pdf]

Chiu, T.-F. and Shackelford, C.D. (2000). "Laboratory evaluation of sand underdrains." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 126(11), 990-1001.

Shackelford, C.D, Benson, C.H., Katsumi, T., Edil, T.B., and Lin, L. (2000). "Evaluating the hydraulic conductivity of GCLs permeated with non-standard liquids." Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 18(2-4), 133-161. [pdf]

Shackelford, C.D., Malusis, M.A., Majeski, M. J., Stern, R.T. (1999). "Electrical conductivity breakthrough curves." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE , 125(4), 260-270.

Cotten, T.E., Davis, M.M., and Shackelford, C.D. (1998). "Effect of test duration and specimen length on diffusion testing of unconfined specimens." Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 21(2):79-94. [pdf]

Stern, R.T. and Shackelford, C.D. (1998). "Permeation of sand-processed clay mixtures with calcium chloride solutions." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 124(3), 231-241.

Chiu, T.-F. and Shackelford, C.D. (1998). "Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of compacted sand-kaolin mixtures." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 124(2), 160-170.

Howell, J.L., Shackelford, C.D., Amer, N.H., and Stern, R.T. (1997). "Compaction of sand-processed clay soil mixtures." Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 20(4), 443-458. [pdf]

Shackelford, C.D. and Glade, M. (1997). "Analytical mass leaching model for contaminated soil and soil stabilized waste." Journal of Ground Water, AGWSE, 35(2), 233-242. [pdf]

Shackelford, C.D., Cotten, T.E., Rohal, K., and Strauss, S. (1997). "Acid buffering a high pH soil for zinc diffusion." Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 123(3), 260-271.

Shackelford, C.D. (1995). "Cumulative mass approach for column testing." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 121(10), 696-703.

Shackelford, C.D. and Redmond, P. (1995). Solute breakthrough curves for processed kaolin at low flow rates. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 121(1), 17-32.

Redmond, P. and Shackelford, C.D. (1994). "Design and evaluation of a flow pump system for column testing." Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 17(3), 269-281. [pdf]

Shackelford, C.D. (1994). "Critical concepts for column testing." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 120(10), 1804-1828.

Manassero, M. and Shackelford, C.D. (1994). "The role of diffusion in contaminant migration through soil barriers." Italian Geotechnical Journal (Rivista Italiana di Geotecnica), 28(1), 5-31 (in English and Italian). [pdf]

Shackelford, C.D. and Javed, F. (1991). "Large-scale laboratory permeability testing of a compacted clay soil." Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 14(2), 171-179. [pdf]

Shackelford, C.D. (1991). "Laboratory diffusion testing for waste disposal - A review." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 7(3),177-217. [pdf]

Shackelford, C.D. and Daniel, D.E. (1991). "Diffusion in saturated soil: II. Results for compacted clay." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 117(3), 485-506.

Shackelford, C.D. and Daniel, D.E. (1991). "Diffusion in saturated soil: I. Background." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 117(3), 467-484.

Shackelford, C.D. (1990). "Transit-time design of earthen barriers." Engineering Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 29(1), 79-94. [pdf]

Shackelford, C.D., Daniel, D.E., and Liljestrand, H.M. (1989). "Diffusion of inorganic chemical species in compacted clay soil." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 4(3), 441-473. [pdf]

Daniel, D.E. and Shackelford, C.D. (1988). "Disposal barriers that release contaminants only by molecular diffusion." Nuclear and Chemical Waste Management, 8, 299-305. [pdf]